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2019年考研英语(二)真题

日期: 2019-07-30
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2019 年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试
 
管理类专业学位联考
 
英语(二)
 
(科目代码:204)
 
考生须知
 
1. 答题前,考生须在试题册指定位置上填写考生姓名和考生编号;在答题卡指定位置上填写报考单位、考生姓名和考生编号,并涂写考生编号信息点。
 
2. 考生须把试题册上的“试卷条形码”粘贴条取下,粘贴在答题卡的“试卷条形码粘贴位置”框中。不按规定粘贴条形码而影响评卷结果的,责任由考生自负。
 
3. 选择题的答案必须涂写在答题卡相应题号的选项上,非选择题的答案必须书写在答题卡指定位置的边框区域内,超出答题区域书写的答案无效;在草稿纸、试题册上答题无效。
 
4. 填(书)写部分必须使用黑色字迹签字笔书写,字迹工整、笔迹清楚;涂写部分必须使用 2B 铅笔填涂。
 
5. 考试结束,将答题卡和试题册按规定交回。
 
 
(以下信息考生必须认真填写)
2019年考研英语(二)真题 
 
考生编号
 
考生姓名



 
Section I Use of English
 
DirectionsRead the following passage. For each numbered blank there are four choices marked A, B, C and D. Choose the best one and mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(10 points)
 
Weighing yourself regularly is a wonderful way to stay aware of any significant weight
 
fluctuations.1, when done too often, this habit can sometimes hurt more than it2.
Weighing myself every day caused me to shift my focus from being generally healthy and
physically active, to focusing3on the scale. That was bad to my overall fitness goals. I had
gained weight in the form of muscle mass, but thinking only of4the number on the scale, I
altered my training program. That conflicted with how I needed to train to5my goals.
I also found weighing myself daily did not provide an accurate6   of the hard work and











 
progress I was making in the gym. It takes about three weeks to a month to notice significant
 
changes in weight
7altering your training program. The most8changes will be
observed in skill level, strength and inches lost.



For these
9   , I stopped weighing myself every day and switched to a bimonthly weighing








schedule10
. Since weight loss is not my goal, it is less important for me to   11my












 
weight each week. Weighing every other week allows me to observe and12any significant
weight changes. That tells me whether I need to13
my training program.

I also use my bimonthly weigh-in   14   to get information about my nutrition as well. If my






training intensity remains the same, but I'm constantly15and dropping weight, this is a
16that I need to increase my daily caloric intake.





The17to stop weighing myself every day has done wonders for my overall health,
 
fitness and well-being. I am experiencing increased zeal for working out since I no longer carry
 
the burden of a
18
morning weigh-in. I've also experienced greater success in achieving my
specific fitness goals,19
I'm training according to those goals, instead of numbers on a
scale.








Rather than20

over the scale, turn your focus to how you look, feel, how your clothes
fit and your overall energy level.


1.A. However

B. ThereforeC. OtherwiseD. Besides
2.A. cares


B. helpsC. warnsD. reduces
3.A. initially


B. occasionallyC. solelyD. formally
4.A. recording

B. explainingC.loweringD. accepting
5.A. reach


B. set
C. reviewD. modify
6.A. definition

B. distributionC. depictionD. prediction
7.A. regardless of

B. due toC. aside fromD. along with
8.A immediate

B. rigid
C. preciseD. orderly
9.A. claims


B. judgmentsC. methodsD. reasons
10.A. though


B. insteadC. againD. indeed
11.A. report


B. overlookC. trackD. conceal
12.A. account for

B. approve ofC. hold ontoD. depend on
13.A. prepare


B.share
C. confirmD. adjust
14.A. features


B. resultsC. rulesD. tests


 
1


 
15.A. boredB. anxiousC. sickD. hungry
16.A. signB. secretC. beliefD. principle
17.A. requestB. necessityC. wishD. decision
18.A. surprisingB.disappointingC. restrictingD. consuming
19.A.ifB. unlessC. becauseD. until
20.A. dominatingB. obsessingC. puzzlingD. triumphing
 
 
 
 
 
Section II Reading Comprehension
 
Part A
 
Directions: Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
 
Text 1
 
Unlike so-called basic emotions such as sadness, fear, and anger,guilt emerges a lttle later, in conjunction with a child's growing grasp of social and moral norms. Children aren't born knowing how to say “I'm sorry'; rather, they learn over time that such statements appease parents and friends - and their own consciences. This is why researchers generally regard so-called moral guilt, in the right amount, to be good thing: A child who claims responsibility for knocking over a tower and tries to rebuild it is engaging in behavior that's not only reparative but also prosocial.
 
In the popular imagination, of course, guilt still gets a bad rap. It evokes Freud's ideas and religious hang-ups. More important, guilt is deeply uncomfortable - it's the emotional equivalent of wearing a jacket weighted with stones. Who would inflict it upon a child? Yet this understanding is outdated. “There has been a kind of revival or a rethinking about what guilt is and what role guilt can serve,' Vaish says, adding that this revival is part of a larger recognition that emotions aren't binary - feelings that may be advantageous in one context may be harmful in another. Jealousy and anger, for example, may have evolved to alert us to important inequalities. Too much happiness (think mania) can be destructive.
 
And guilt, by prompting us to think more deeply about our goodness. can encourage humans to atone for errors and fix relationships. Guilt, in other words, can help hold a cooperative species together. It is a kind of social glue.
Viewed in this light, guilt is an opportunity. Work by Tina Malti, a psychology professor at the University of Toronto, suggests that guilt may compensate for an emotional deficiency. In a number of studies, Malti and others have shown that guilt and sympathy (and its close cousin empathy) may represent different pathways to cooperation and sharing. Some kids who are low in sympathy may make up for that shortfall by experiencing more guilt, which can rein in their nastier impulses. And vice versa: High sympathy can substitute for low guilt.In a 2014 study. for example, Malti and a colleague looked at 244 children, ages 4, 8. and 12. Using caregiver assessments and the children's self-observations, they rated each child's overall sympathy level and his or her tendency to feel negative emotions (like guilt and sadness) after moral transgressions. Then the kids were handed stickers and chocolate coins, and given a chance to share them with an anonymous child. For the low-sympathy kids, how much they shared appeared


 
 
2


 
to turn on how inclined they were to feel guilty. The guilt-prone ones shared more, even though they hadn't magically become more sympathetic to the other child's deprivation.
21. Researches think that guilt can be a good thing because it may help ______
 
A. regulate a child's basic emotions
 
B. foster a child's moral development
 
C. improve a child's intellectual ability
 
D. intensify a child's positive feelings
 
22. According to Paragraph 2, many people still consider guilt to be _______
 
A. burdensome B. deceptive C. addictive D. inexcusable
 
23. Vaish holds that the rethinking about guilt comes from an awareness that _______
 
A. emotions are context-independent
 
B. emotions are socially constructive
 
C. an emotion can play opposing roles
 
D. emotional stability can benefit health
 
24. Malti and others have shown that cooperation and sharing _______
 
A. can result from either sympathy or guilt
 
B. may help correct emotional deficiencies
 
C. can bring about emotional satisfaction
 
D. may be the outcome of impulsive acts
 
25. The world 'transgressions'( Line 4, Para.5) is closest in meaning to
2019年考研英语(二)真题 
 
A. teachings B. discussions C. wrongdoings D. restrictions
 
 
 
Text 2
 
Forests give us shade, quiet and one of the harder challenges in the fight against climate change. Even as we humans count on forests to soak up a good share of the carbon dioxide we produce, we are threatening their ability to do so. The climate change we are hastening could one day leave us with forests that emit more carbon than they absorb.
Thankfully, there is a way out of this trap - but it involves striking a subtle balance. Helping forests flourish as valuable 'carbon sinks' long into the future may require reducing their capacity to sequester carbon now. California is leading the way, as it does on so many climate efforts. in figuring out the details.
The state's proposed Forest Carbon Plan aims to double efforts to thin out young trees and clear brush in parts of the forest, including by controlled burning. This temporarily lowers carbon-carrying capacity. But the remaining trees draw a greater share of the available moisture, so they grow and thrive, restoring the forest's capacity to pull carbon from the air. Healthy trees are also better able to fend off bark beetles. The landscape is rendered less combustible. Even in the event of a fire, fewer trees are consumed.
 
The need for such planning is increasingly urgent. Already, since 2010, drought and beetles have killed more tham 100 million trees in California. most of them in 2016 alone, and wildfires have scorched hundreds of thousands of acres.
California's plan envisions treating 35,000 acres of forest a year by 2020, and 60,000 by 2030
 
- financed from the proceeds of the state's emissions-permit auctions. That's only a small share of the total acreage that could benefit, an estimated half a million acres in all. so it will be important


 
3


 
to prioritize areas at greatest risk of fire or drought.
 
The strategy also aims to ensure that carbon in woody material removed from the forests is locked away in the form of solid lumber, burned as biofuel in vehicles that would otherwise run on fossil fuels, or used in compost or animal feed.
State governments are well accustomed to managing forests, including those owned by the U.S. Forest Service, but traditionally they've focused on wildlife, watersheds and opportunities for recreation. Only recently have they come to see the vital part forests will have to play in storing carbon. California's plan, which is expected to be finalized by the governor early next year, should serve as a model.
26. By saying 'one of the harder challenges,' the author implies that ______
 
A. global climate change may get out of control
 
B. people may misunderstand global warming
 
C. forests may become a potential threat
 
D. extreme weather conditions may arise
 
27. To maintain forests as valuable 'carbon sinks ,' we may need
 
A. preserve the diversity of species in them
 
B. accelerate the growth of young trees
 
C. lower their present carbon-absorbing capacity
 
D. strike a balance among different plants
 
28. California's Forest Carbon Plan endeavors to
 
A. reduce the density of some of its forests
 
B. cultivate more drought-resistant trees
 
C. find more effective ways to kill insects
 
D. restore its forests quickly after wildfires
 
29. What is essential to California's plan according to Paragraph 5?
 
A. To obtain enough financial support
 
B. To carry it out before the year of 2020
 
C. To prefect the emissions-permit auctions
 
D. To handle the areas in serious danger first
 
30. The author's attitude to California's plan can best be described as ______
2019年考研英语(二)真题2019年考研英语(二)真题 
 
A. ambiguous B. supportive C. tolerant D. cautious
 
Text 3
 
American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years now. Given a multi-year decline in illegal immigration, and a similarly sustained pickup in the U.S. job market, the complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers. Efforts to create a more straightforward agricultural-workers visa that would enable foreign workers to stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry have so far failed in Congress. If this doesn't change, American businesses, communities and consumers will be the losers.
 
Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the U.S. the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled, rather than migrating, and more likely to be married than single. They are also aging. At the start of this century, about one


 
 
4


 
-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now, more than half are. And crop picking is hard on older bodies.
One of the debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been all along:
 
Native U.S. workers won't be returning to the farm.
 
Mechanization is not the answer either - not yet at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans and wheat have been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots currently do only a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they are automated.
As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the agricultural workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply;from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled. The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 annually. Even so, employers frequently complain that they aren't allotted all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led H-2A workers to arrive on the job an average of 22 days late. And the shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers an drive others underground.
 
In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it.
 
31.What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?
 
A. Flaws in U.S. immigration rules for farm workers.
 
B. Discrimination against foreign workers in theU.S.
 
C. Biased laws in favor of some American businesses.
 
D. Decline of job opportunities in U.S. agriculture.
 
32. One trouble with U. S. agricultural workforce is
 
A. the rising number of illegal immigrants
 
B. the aging of immigrant farm workers
 
C. the high mobility of crop workers
 
D. the lack of experienced laborers
 
33. What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in U.S.farming?
 
A. To strengthen financial-support for farmers.
 
B. To attract younger laborers to farm work.
 
C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.
 
D. To get native U.S. workers back to farming.
 
34. Agricultural employers complain about the H-2A visa for its ______
 
A. control of annual admissions
 
B. limit on duration of stay
 
C. slow granting procedures
 
D. tightened requirements
 
35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?
 
A. Manpower vs. Automation?
 
B. U. S Agriculture in Decline?
 
C. America Saved by Mexico?
 
D. Import Food or Labor?
2019年考研英语(二)真题


 
 
 
 
5


 
Text 4
 
Arnold Schwarzenegger, Dia Mirza and Adrian Grenier have a message for you: It's easy to beat plastic. They are part of a bunch of celebrities starring in a new video for World Environment Day encouraging you, the consumer, to swap out your single-use plastic staples like straws and cutlery to combat the plastics.
The key messages that have been put together for World Environment Day do include a call for governments to enact legislation to curb single -use plastics. But the overarching message is directed at individuals: Lead with your wallets.
My biggest concern with leaving it up to the individual, however, is our limited sense of what needs to be achieved. On their own, taking our own bags to the grocery store or quitting plastic straws, for example, will accomplish little and require very little of us. They could even be detrimental, satisfying a need to have “done our best without ever progressing onto bigger, bolder, more effective actions - a kind of 'moral licensing” that allays our concerns and stops us doing more and asking more of those in charge.
While the conversation around our environment and our responsibility toward it remains centered on shopping bags and straws, we're ignoring the balance of power that implies that as “consumers” we must shop sustainably, rather than as “citizens” hold our governments and industries to account to push for real systemic change. Nowhere in World Environment Day 2018's key messages is there anything about voting for environmentally progressive politicians, for example. Why not?
 
It's important to acknowledge that the environment isn't everyone's priority - or even most people's. We shouldn't expect it to be. In her latest book, Why Good People Do Bad Environmental Things, Wellesley College professor Elizabeth R. DeSombre argues that the best way to collectively change the behavior of large numbers of people is for the change to be structural.
This might mean implementing policy such as a plastic tax that adds a cost to environmentally problematic action, or banning single-use plastics altogether. India has just announced it will“eliminate all single-use plastic in the country by 2022.” There are also incentive-based ways of making better environmental choices easier, such as ensuring recycling is at least as easy as trash disposal. DeSombre isn't saying people should stop caring about the environment. It's just that individual actions are too slow, she says, for that to be the only, or even primary, approach to changing widespread behavior.
 
None of this is about writing off the individual. It's just about putting things into perspective. We don't have time to wait. We need progressive policies that shape collective action (and rein in polluting businesses), alongside engaged citizens pushing for change. That's not something we can buy.
36. Some celebrities star in a new video to ______
 
A. disclose the causes of the plastics crisis
 
B. demand new laws on the use of plastics
 
C. invite public opinion on the plastics crisis
 
D. urge consumers to cut the use of plastics
 
37. The author is concerned that “moral licensing' may _____
 
A. suppress our desire for success
 
B. mislead us into doing worthless things


 
 
6


 
C. weaken our sense of accomplishment
 
D. prevent us from making further efforts
 
38. By pointing out our identity as 'citizens,' the author indicates that
 
A. we have been actively exercising our civil rights
 
B. we should press our governments to lead the combat
 
C. our relationship with local industries is improving
 
D. our focus should be shifted to community welfare
 
39. DeSombre argues that the best way for a collective change should be _______
 
A. a win-win arrangement
 
B. a top-town process
 
C. a self-driven mechanism
 
D. a cost-effective approach
 
40. The author concludes that individual efforts ________
 
A. are far from sufficient
 
B. are far from rational”
 
C. can be too inconsistent
 
D. can be too aggressive
 
 
 
Part B
 
Directions: Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
 
How seriously should parents take kids' opinions when searching for a home?
 
In choosing a new home, Camille McClain's kids had a single demand: a backyard.
 
That seemingly reasonable request turned the Chicago family's home hunt upside down, as there weren't many three-bedroom apartments on the North Side - where the family was looking that came with yard space. Still, McClain and her husband chose to honor their 4- and 6-year-old's request.
'We worked with a few apartment brokers, and it was strange that many of them didn't even know if there was outdoor space, so they'd bring us to an apartment, we'd see that it didn't have a yard, and we'd move on,' said McClain, who runs Merry Music Makers in Lakeview, a business focused on music education for children. McClain's little ones aren't the only kids who have an opinion when it comes to housing, and in many cases youngsters' views weigh heavily on parents' real estate decisions, according to a 2018 Harris Poll survey of more than 2,000 U.S. adults.
 
Renters paid attention to their kids' preferences even more: 83 percent said their children's opinions will be a factor when they buy a home.
The idea of involving children in a big decision is a great idea because it can help them feel a sense of control and ownership in what can be an overwhelming process, said Ryan Hooper, clinical psychologist in Chicago.
'Children may face serious difficulfies in coping with significant moves, especially if it removes them from their current school or support system,' he said.


 
7


 
Younger children should feel like they're choosing their home without actually getting a choice in the matter, said Adam Leitman Bailey, real estate attorney based in New York and author of the upcoming children's book “Home,' about the search for the perfect home from the viewpoint of a child.
Asking them questions about what they like about the backyard of a potential home - or asking them where their toys would go in the house - will make them feel like they're being included in the decision-making process, Bailey said.
Many of the aspects of homebuying aren't a consideration for children, said Tracey Hampson, a real estate agent based in Santa Clarita, Calif. And placing too much home purchase
She has a client who has been house - hunting for a while, and he always asks his young children their opinion. But when this buyer finally decided to write an offer on a home with a pool, his children burst into tears because they didn't want a pool.
“They ended up not submitting an offer,' Hampson said. “So speaking with your children before you make a real estate decision is wise, but I wouldn't base the purchasing decision solely on their opinions.'
The other issue is that many children - especally older ones may base their real estate knowledge on HGTV shows, which tend to focus on superficial aspects of real estate, said Aaron Norris of The Norris Group in Riverside, Calif.
'They love Chip and Joanna Gaines just as much as the rest of us,'ne said. 'HGTV has seriously changed how people view real estate.It's not shelter, it's a lifestyle. With that mindset change comes some serious money consequences.'
Kids tend to get stuck in the features and the immediate benefits to them personally, Norris said. And while their opinions on those elements shouldn't reign supreme, the homebuying process could be time to start talking to kids about money, budgeting,homeownership and other financial decisions.
“Their opinions can change tomorrow,' Gurner said. “As as harsh as it may be to say, that decision should likely not be made contingent on a child's opinions, but rather made for them with great consideration into what home can meet their best and give them an opportunity to customize it a bit and make it the own.
This advice is more relevant now than ever before, even as more parents want to embrace the ideas of their children, despite the current housing crunch.
Today, wannabe homebuyers have to be more open when it comes to must-haves and what you can compromise on, Hampson said.
And speaking of compromise: The McClain kids, hungry for outdoor space, fell in love with a home in the North Park neighborhood that had a large yard. But it wasn't ideal by their parents' standards.
The family ended up renting a house in North Center that had a smaller yard, but it was still big enough for playtime.
“I had to do a bit of a sales job with the kids since they loved the yard in North Park,' McClain said. “But there's a hammock they lounge on, a spot to jump rope, a place to play in the sprinkler, and an area to write with sidewalk chalk.'


 
 
 
 
 
 
8


 

A. assumes that many children's views on real estate are influenced by

the media.


41.Ryan HooperB. remarks that significant moves may pose challenges to children.
42.Adam BaileyC.  says  that  it  is  wise  to  leave  kids  in  the  dark  about  real  estate

decisions.
43.Tracey HampsonD. advises that home purchases should not be based only on children’s

opinions.
44.Aaron NorrisE.  thinks  that  children  should  be  given  a  sense  of  involvement  in

homebuying decisions.
45.Julie GurnerF. notes that aspects like children's friends and social activities should be

considered upon homebuying.

G. believes that homebuying decisions should be based on children’s

needs rather than their opinions.


 
 
 
 
 
Section III Translation
 
46. Directions: Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.(15 points)
It is easy to underestimate English writer James Herriot. He had such a pleasant, readable style that people might think that anyone could imitate it. How many times have I heard people say, “I could write a book, I just haven't the time” easily said. Not so easily done. James Herriot, contrary to popular opinion did not find it easy in his early days of, as he put it,“having a go at the writing game'. While he obviously had an abundance of natural talent, the final polished work that he have presented to the world was the result of years of practicing re-writing and reading. Like the majority of authors, he had to suffer many disappointments and rejections along the way, but these made him all the more determined to succeed. Everything he achieved in life was earned the hard way and his success in the literacy field was no exception.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
9


 
Section IV Writing
 
Part A
 
47. Directions: Suppose Professor Smith asked you to plan a debate on the theme of city traffic, write him an email to
1) suggest a specific topic with your reasons, and
 
2) tell him about the arrangements.
 
You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEEI.
 
DO NOT your own name. Use“Li Ming”instead. Do not write your address. (10 points)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Part B
 
48. Directions: Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should
 
I) interpret the chart, and
 
AI) give your comments.
 
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15points)
2019年考研英语(二)真题



 
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